History Of The City Of Mecca and Medina
Mecca and Medina are two important cities in Islam.
When perform the Hajj and Umrah we will visit the two holy cities of this. By knowing the history of the city of Mecca and Medina will add to our knowledge and belief of Islam so that there is a feeling glorify both blessed the city.
I. The history of the city of Mecca
Mecca is derived from the word Imtakka meaning urgent or pushing. Understanding of the urgent / push will become clearer with the explanation below. In Quran the city of Mecca called Bakkah as the word of Allah Almighty:
The first house (of worship) appointed for men was that at Bakka: full of blessing and guidance for all worlds. (Ali Imron: 96).
Bakkah origin of the word comes from the word Bakka-yabbuku means pressing, urgent / push because the Mecca pressing neck arrogant ones explained in Jalalain for Qs Ali Imron: 96.
People first lived in the city of Mecca is Ismail and his mother, Siti Hajar, when both left in the valley by the prophet Ibrahim on the orders of Allah. Before leaving they Prophet Ibrahim prayed to Allah:
O our lord! I have made some of my offspring to dwell in a valley without cultivation, by the Sacred House: in order, O our lord! That they may establish regular prayer: so fill the hearts of some among men with love towards them and feed them with fruits: so that they may give thanks (Ibrahim: 37)
In the middle of thirst because of the absence of water, when the Prophet Ismail set foot on the ground, with the power of Allah comes the zam-zam water blessed. By coincidence Gone caravan of Jurhum who had just returned from Sham, when they saw the water, then they asked for permission to stay near there. Finally the prophet Ismail lived with them and they are the first inhabitants of the city of Mecca. When adults prophet Ismail eventually married a descendant of the caravan Jurhum then the offspring called Ismail mustaribah by historians.
Where is Mecca Located
The city of Mecca is located 280 meters above sea level, as far as 430 km from the southern city of Medina and as far as 73 km from the pause from the east. Mecca is located in a valley Ibrahim between Falaq mount and Quaiquan mount from the north, Abu Hudaidah Mount from the west, mountain Kudai from the south, the mountain Abi qudais in the southeast.
There are 2 great history with respect to the city of Mecca that the first destruction of Abraha someone king of Habasyah who want to destroy the Kaaba. The second one is the birth of the Prophet Muhammad sallallaahu alaihis WA Salam, which then led to major changes in the city of Mecca because his mission of divinity which ultimately change human civilization until now.
II. The history of the city of Medina
In a hadith Jabir bin Samurah Ra said I heard Rosululloh of Allah said, “Allah Almighty named Medina with Thabah name (Muslim)
In an another report, the city of Medina named Thaibah, meaning good and holy. The point is Medina holy from shirk and the water and the air is very good, according to human nature. Another opinion says, meaning Thaibah is well populated. First, there is a mention of Medina with the name Yathrib, but the name was not favored by rosullulloh due to Yathrib means invective and distress.
The original inhabitants of Medina city are Khazraj tribes, besides that there are some Jews who lived with them. Although different beliefs, they can live in Medina in peace.
Geographic Location of the Medina
Medina was in the plains surrounded by mountains and hills. Medina desert climate, with temperatures ranging from 30-45 degrees in the summer, and the average temperature is between 10-25 degrees Celsius.
Noteworthy in the history of the city Medina is the emigration the prophet Muhammad in this city. Since Hijrah (emigration) in Medina Islam began to get “fresh air” and can grow rapidly because of the support of the people there. Ansar (native of the city of Medina) successfully united in the bond of brotherhood with muhajirin (the people of Mecca that accompany the Prophet emigrated). Then the prophet builds Nabawi mosque, which is the center of government. In this mosque, Islam is taught and propagated throughout the world.
Thus the history of the city of Mecca and Medina, may be useful.